Category: Environmental Coordination

PFAS Contamination in New Hampshire Drinking Water: What Our Water Quality Experts are Learning about this Emerging Contaminant

picture of a faucet in someone's kitchen pouring water into a sink to show drinking water contaminants

The whatTeal circle with "NH PFAS Sources" written on top and inside circle, text explaining where PFAS contaminants originate in NH

Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFAS) are manmade chemicals that are characterized by very stable carbon chains that allow them to act as a strong repellent to oil, water, and stains from other liquids. These desirable properties mean they are found in hundreds of consumer products as well as in firefighting foams.

There are more than 1,000 forms of PFAS compounds that have different chemical makeups and properties and different levels of toxicity. To date, the most commonly found PFAS compounds are ‘perfluorooctanoic acid’ (PFOA) and ‘perfluorooctanesulfonic acid’ (PFOS).

These forms have long carbon chains, do not readily break down in the environment, are water soluble, and have been found in some New Hampshire groundwater supplies at elevated levels.

The why

The public health concern is for PFAS to be consumed, absorbed and accumulated in the body at toxic levels. Although more research is needed, initial scientific studies indicate that long-chain compounds like PFOA and PFOS may cause developmental effects in infants, interfere with the body’s natural hormones, increase cholesterol levels, affect the immune system and increase the risk of cancer. Scientists are still learning about the health effects of PFAS and their toxicity, though it is believed that the PFAS compounds having shorter carbon chains are potentially less toxic since they remain in the bloodstream for shorter periods of time.

Are these compounds in your public water supply?

The who

In 2017, EPA recommended PFAS levels they believed would not lead to toxicity while allowing states to consider more stringent levels for compounds of concern. The NH Department of Environmental Services (DES) has been working diligently on amendments to their drinking water rules to protect public health and the environment from PFAS in our drinking water. New rules were recently adopted that will affect every public water system in the State of New Hampshire.

The when

Last week, Hoyle, Tanner’s water quality experts attended the NH Drinking Water Exposition and Tradeshow learning about New Hampshire’s new PFAS limits. DES submitted amended public drinking water rules in July 2019 to the state legislature which voted in favor of the new standards. The new standards became effective on September 29, 2019 setting  the Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) in public drinking water for specific PFAS compounds as follows:

  1. PFHxS = 18 ppt
  2. PFNA = 11 ppt
  3. PFOS = 15 ppt
  4. PFOA = 12 ppt

The new rules require public water supplies to begin sampling and reporting levels of these four PFAS compounds beginning in the fourth quarter of 2019 (Oct-Dec) with continued quarterly sampling and reporting in 2020 and beyond. The regulatory thresholds will be based on a 4-quarter running average for each of the PFAS compounds with compliance indicated by a 4-quarter average that is less than the MCL for each compound.

By January 2020, DES will be submitting draft rules on PFAS in surface water to the New Hampshire legislature – more to come on this front!

The how

Proper sampling is critical to avoid contaminating samples. Many communities are not equipped to perform the sampling themselves and will rely on certified laboratories for proper sampling, analytical methods, and meeting the quarterly sampling and reporting schedule.

The DES Water Quality Experts

Hoyle, Tanner’s water quality engineers are committed to keeping at the forefront of emerging regulations and technologies to be able to better serve the communities where we live and work.  You may contact me, Joe Ducharme, Regional Manager of Environmental Services, at 603-669-5555, x-142 or email me with any questions or water quality needs – we are here to help!

What you need to know about New Hampshire’s Drinking Water

fountain

This summer, New Hampshire has made noteworthy steps in keeping our drinking water safe by enacting stricter Maximum Contamination Levels (MCLs) for contaminants of concern.  Regulations were approved lowering the regulated MCL for four ‘per’ and ‘poly’ fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) chemicals detected in NH drinking water, and the MCL for arsenic has been cut by half.

Arsenic Levels in our Drinking Water

Arsenic is a naturally occurring chemical element in groundwater and is a regulated inorganic compound for NH public drinking water supplies. NH adopted the federal maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.010 milligrams per liter (mg/l) many years ago. This July, the Governor signed a bill lowering the arsenic limit to 0.005 mg/l to further improve public health. NH public water supplies currently treating for arsenic will need to reevaluate their treatment systems to determine whether they meet the new MCL of 0.005 mg/l by the compliance deadline of July 2021.

Regulating PFAS in our Drinking Water

PFAS chemicals have been found in some New Hampshire drinking water sources. They include perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS).

Since the 1940s, these compounds have been steadily increasing in the environment, as they are used in a variety of household, industrial, and commercial products worldwide. Some common products containing PFAS chemicals include non-stick (Teflon) cookware, flame retardant foams, and food packaging, such as microwave popcorn bags and fast food wrappers.

Once in the environment, these chemicals do not break down easily and are known to accumulate in the human body over time. Research on these compounds is still limited, but the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has identified health issues like decreases in fertility and vaccine response, increase in cholesterol levels, and evidence of carcinogenicity (specifically testicular and kidney cancer), as possible effects of excessive exposure to PFAS chemicals.

This July, the NH Joint Legislative Rules Committee (JLCAR) voted to approve rules proposed by the NH Department of Environmental Services (DES) that set limits for PFAS compounds in NH community drinking water systems. Applicable water systems are defined as non-transient systems serving 25 or more people, more than 60 days per year. The rules are intended to protect the most sensitive populations over a lifetime of exposure and includes the following compounds:

New Hampshire is now the first state to set new PFAS Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) that are well below the federal health advisory level of 70 parts per trillion (ppt). The new MCLs becomes effective October 1, 2019. Mandatory quarterly PFAS testing will start in the fourth quarter of 2019 on all community water systems. Those results will be combined with the first three quarters of results in 2020 to develop a running four-quarter average concentration that will determine the systems in compliance, and those needing remediation. Remediation could mean installing treatment and filtration systems with estimated costs (for compliance with the new rules) reportedly as high as $200 million. NHDES approved these changes in an effort to make the state’s drinking water safer for consumption. To read the full report, visit the NHDES website.

 

Endangered Species Day – Highlighting the Northern Long Eared Bat

Northern Long Eared Bat Photo

The United States has multiple federal laws and international treaties aimed to protect endangered species. Species conservation is a shared responsibility; our choices and actions are capable of making a difference for the better. As engineers, we at Hoyle, Tanner are committed to the protection of endangered and threatened species by working through strict permitting laws and utilizing environmental experts.

In 2015, the northern long eared bat received news coverage for becoming a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). In 2016, it received a final 4(d) Rule, mandating that the species needs conservation help. Currently the main factor threatening these bats is a fungus called White Nose Syndrome, which is the disease responsible for a species decline of up to 99% in the Northeast.

Identifying the Northern Long Eared Bat

The northern long eared bat is a brown-toned, medium sized bat with a body length of 3 to 3.7 inches. Named for its unusually long ears in comparison to other bats, the northern long eared bat species range includes 37 states across most of the Eastern and Northern Central United States.

During the winter months, the bats can be found hibernating in caves and mines with constant temperatures, high humidity and limited air flow as hibernacula. In the summer, the northern long eared bats preside primarily in the crevices of dead trees. At dusk they feed on moths, flies, leafhoppers, caddisflies, and beetles. A hibernating bat with White Nose Syndrome can be identified by white fungus on its muzzle, causing the animal to act strangely and often flying out of their hibernacula during the winter months. White Nose Syndrome is currently present in 25 of 37 states within the species range and there are indications that it will continue to spread.

Protecting the Northern Long Eared Bat

White Nose Syndrome was first identified in New York in 2007 and has since been primarily responsible for the severe decline in species population. Steps in disease management have been taken by many government, non-government and university organizations to decrease the rate the disease is spread.

Since being listed as threatened on April 2, 2015, the northern long eared bat is federally protected under Section 7(a)(l) of the ESA, which requires federal agencies to use their authorities to conserve listed species. In June 2016, the Federal Highway, Railroad and Transit administrations completed a range wide consultation and conservation strategy for transportation construction and expansion projects. According to the article, “The programmatic biological opinion that resulted will help expedite the consultation process related to transportation projects and provide a consistent approach to conservation for the bats. The strategy includes:

  • Proactive conservation measures that are most suited and needed for the conservation of the species,
  • Priority areas for mitigation measures,
  • Standardized effects analyses with avoidance and minimization measures associated with project types,
  • An informal programmatic consultation covering all states; and
  • A limited formal programmatic consultation.”

For more information, visit U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services website.

How Can You Help?

We share the planet and the responsibility of being hospitable to other creatures. You don’t have to be an environmental specialist to help keep this disease from spreading. Here are a few things you can do:

Do Not Disturb: Cave and mine closures, advisories and regulations are there for a reason. Abide by them. By entering a cave or mine against security standards or recommendations, you could be risking the possibility of disturbing hibernating bats. Waking a hibernating bat can force it to use up valuable energy resources and in turn decrease its chances of surviving the winter. Furthermore, by entering a cave or mine without permission, you may be violating decontamination policies and exposing bats to White Nose Syndrome. Because we still do not know exactly how the disease is spread, you should never utilize clothing, footwear or equipment from an affected area in an unaffected area within the range

Save Dead Trees: A dead tree may be an eyesore compared to the rest of your beautiful yard, but before you cut it down, remember what could be depending on it for survival. Northern long eared bats are forest-dependent creatures that rely on different elements of forests to survive. By removing dead trees during a time when bats may be in the trees, you could be causing harm.

Build a Bat Box: Already cut the tree down? You can replace it with a bat box! By creating this backyard habitat, you are providing a safe and sound location for over 100 bats to roost. “Bat boxes are especially needed from April to August when females look for safe and quiet places to give birth and raise their pups.”

Tell Your Friends: Sometimes you can make the biggest impact by simply spreading the word. There are so many endangered species that need our protection and although a bat with unusually long ears isn’t as glamorous as a tiger or an elephant, it doesn’t make them any less important. Bats play a significant role in regulating the insect population and eliminating crop-destroying pests.

Many people do not understand the role they play in maintaining a healthy and balanced ecosystem. By spreading the word and telling people how they can do their part you will have a significant impact in the ongoing fight for the preservation of the northern long eared bat and endangered species as a whole.

National Drinking Water Week 2019: Help Keep Drinking Water Clean & Accessible

National Drinking Water Faucet

National Drinking Water Week is a time to celebrate and recognize the vital role water plays in our daily lives. For more than 40 years, the American Water Works Association (AWWA) has encouraged individuals in the community to take personal responsibility over conserving and maintaining clean drinking water.

Although the majority of the earth’s surface is covered in water, only 1% of it is accessible to drink. Here in the United States, we are blessed with access to some of the cleanest drinking water in the world, but we go through roughly 355 billion gallons of it a day. We need to increase our conservation efforts in order to preserve this vital natural resource for future generations.

In the hopes of spreading the word and doing our part to participate in National Drinking Water Week this year, we have gathered together a list of tips and tricks that can help you do your part to save more clean drinking water and support water infrastructure.

Get the lead out: Lead is a common and naturally occurring metal that is sometimes present in the pipes of older homes. In small amounts it is not necessarily toxic, however, continuous exposure can have harmful long term effects on the body, particularly in children and pregnant mothers. Due to it being both invisible and tasteless, the only way to find out if there is lead in your water is to get it professionally tested. That can cost between $20 to $100 dollars.

Don’t plan on getting your water tested? Flushing your tap water is a way to curb possible exposure to lead, especially if the tap has gone without use for an extended period of time. Flushing the tap gets rid of the water that has been standing in the pipes and ensures you only get water from the source where the chances of naturally occurring lead are extremely rare. A good measure for knowing when the water has been properly flushed is when the temperature goes cold, which could take anywhere between 10 seconds to three minutes. While lead can be removed by some home treatment devices, be weary of which product you use and if/how it has been certified. We suggest checking out NSF International, the Water Quality Association, and CSA International, all of which are organizations that certify products which eliminate contaminants. For further information on lead and how to ensure it is not present in your tap water at either your home or workplace, visit Drink Tap’s webpage or take advantage of one of these hotlines:

EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 1-800-426-4791

National Lead Information Center: 1-800-LEAD-FYI

Fix those Leaks: Did you know the United States wastes one trillion gallons of water annually from household leaks that go unattended? The easiest way to participate in water conservation is to make sure you aren’t unknowingly wasting gallons of water every day. The best way to determine if you have a leak is to turn off all of your appliances that utilize water (i.e. dishwasher, laundry machine), faucets, and outside watering tools. Once you are sure that there is no water running in your home take a look at your water meter. If the flow indicator is still moving, then you probably have a leak. The two most likely culprits for leaks are either the toilets or faucets. The cheapest way to check to see if your toilet is leaking is to drop food coloring in the holding tank. From there, all you have to do is not flush the toilet and wait to see if the water in the bowl becomes colorful. If it does occur, you can confirm the leak. Leaks can be tricky. It can be hard to identify the cause and even harder to execute an easy fix. If you want to read more about the do’s and don’ts of finding and fixing a leak check out Drink Tap’s webpage.

Take Care of Your Pipes: Repeatedly flushing products such as wipes, facial tissues, paper towels, medications and the likes down the toilet can cause unnecessary issues in time. Maintaining lower water pressure is an easy way to lengthen the life of your pipes. High water pressure can easily lead to leaks, which we already know can be extremely wasteful, and be costly to fix. Another easy way to preserve your pipes is making sure you properly dispose of fats, oils, and grease. Throwing these waste products in your regular garbage once they solidify can prevent unwanted in-home sewer back up.

Invest in Infrastructure: Water infrastructure is an essential part of daily life. The North American drinking water network is four times longer than the National Highway System, measuring roughly one million miles long. Unfortunately, much of the current infrastructure has been in the ground for 75 years or more, meaning that it will need to be replaced within the next 25 years. If we do not begin to face the problem of water infrastructure, we will soon find ourselves in the middle of a crisis that threatens the public health and economic vitality of the entire nation. This responsibility cannot be tackled by the water utility companies alone. Replacing our water infrastructure requires a united effort by government, stakeholders and the public as a whole.

We often forget that drinking water is a natural resource that needs to be preserved and protected if we are to have continued access to it in the future because it is so easily accessible to us in the United States. Taking these necessary precautions and investing in the care and restoration of pipes are easy ways that you can participate in preserving the existing infrastructure for the future.  

MS4 Regulations in New Hampshire Communities: How to Deal with Stormwater

Storm Drain Photo

Whew!! You got that Notice of Intent form submitted (hopefully) to EPA on or before October 1. Now what? Grab a cold one, sit back, relax? Wishful thinking. Now the real fun begins.

Stormwater Sampling For those communities that have not already done so, stormwater outfalls from the MS4 area must be located, mapped and assigned a unique identification number. Then an inspection and condition assessment must be done for each outfall. If you were an MS4 community subject to the 2003 permit, you would have (or at least should have) completed this. However, you are not finished. Mapping completed pursuant to the 2003 MS4 permit must be updated with significantly more detail added per the 2017 MS4 permit. You have 2 years to complete the update. If you are a new MS4 community subject to the 2017 MS4 permit, you need to start this process and complete it within 3 years. For all MS4s, the stormwater mapping must be updated annually; and catch basins, catchment areas, manholes, and other features must be added. You must also complete an outfall inventory and ranking. The ranking is based on potential for illicit discharges and sanitary sewer overflows. Are we having fun yet??

If flow is observed from any outfalls during dry weather, it will be necessary to conduct dry-weather sampling and testing of each outfall in which dry-weather flow was observed in order to determine if there are potentially illicit discharges in the outfall. Outfalls must be ranked as “Problem”, “High-Priority”, “Low-Priority”, or “Excluded” based on known or suspected illicit discharges or sewer system overflows. This is all part of the required Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination Program (IDDE). Did I mention you need to complete a written IDDE program within one year (by June 30, 2019)?

A number of New Hampshire communities are specifically listed in the 2017 MS4 permit based on discharges to waters with an approved Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) and/or based on discharges to certain water quality limited (impaired) waters without an approved TMDL. Approved TMDLs include chlorides, bacteria or pathogens, and phosphorus.

How is your Phosphorus Reduction Plan coming along?
Impairments to waters without an approved TMDL include: nitrogen, phosphorus, bacteria or pathogens, chloride, total suspended solids, metals, and oil and grease. Did you know that leaf litter contributes phosphorus and nitrogen to stormwater runoff?

How is your Chloride Reduction Plan coming along?
The written Plan has to be completed within 1 year (on or before June 30, 2019). There are also specific requirements for public education and outreach as well as public participation including messages and outreach to target audiences.

How are your stormwater regulations?
MS4 communities need to update their stormwater regulations and ordinances (if you already have them) or develop and implement regulations for managing stormwater (if you do not have them).

By the way, did I mention that all of the foregoing has to be addressed in your Stormwater Management Plan? The Hoyle, Tanner team of experts is available to assist you as needed with MS4 permit compliance. If you have questions, please contact me or Heidi Marshall for assistance.

Are you ready for the new NH MS4 Stormwater Permit?

Pond with lily pads

EPA Region 1 issued the revised New Hampshire Small MS4 General Permit on January 18, 2017. Affecting 60 New Hampshire communities, this new permit will make a significant change in stormwater management compliance when it takes effect on July 1, 2018.

This new permit imposes more stringent regulations for communities’ compliance in regards to how to manage stormwater.

Many community leaders have expressed concerns that the overlap with other regulatory requirements and the cost of meeting those requirements may not effectively achieve the desired results, and they are looking for integrated cost-effective approaches to meeting the new regulatory requirements.

Governor Chris Sununu has publicly spoken against the new MS4 permits, saying that they would severely impact municipalities and taxpayers, noting that “additional mandates contained within the new MS4 permit will prove themselves overly burdensome and enormously expensive for many of New Hampshire’s communities.”

If you live in community in Southern New Hampshire, chances are that this change affects you in some way. To see a list of affected communities, please visit the EPA website.

Hoyle, Tanner has experienced staff who are knowledgeable about asset management, SRF loan pre-application preparation, and MS4 permitting.

John Jackman, PE, asset management specialist

 

John Jackman, PE, is Hoyle, Tanner’s premier Asset Management Specialist. Although the CWSRF money cannot be directly used to support the MS4 program, using the asset management program to support documentation of municipal assets will be helpful in setting up a strategy for compliance related to the October 1, 2018 required filing date of the MS4 permit’s Notice of Intent.

 

Michael Trainque, PE, stormwater specialist

 

Michael Trainque, PE, has 39 years of environmental engineering experience.  Michael has been integrally involved in developing model stormwater regulations, identification, assessment and dry-weather sampling and testing of stormwater outfalls, as well as other aspects of stormwater management.

 

marshall

Heidi Marshall, PE has been assisting industries and municipalities with NPDES compliance since the 1990s when EPA published the initial stormwater requirements and can assist you with preparation of the Notice of Intent, developing or updating the Stormwater Management Plan, and can provide assistance with the required follow-up actions.

 

Hoyle, Tanner is equipped to help communities that are affected by MS4 regulation changes. We are immediately available to help with pre-application funding, notice of intent preparation for October, and setting up action plans to comply with MS4 requirements.

Let Hoyle, Tanner guide your community into a future with cleaner water. Contact John Jackman, PE for asset management application assistance, or for MS4 assistance, contact Michael Trainque, PE or Heidi Marshall, PE.

Celebrate World Wetlands Day on February 2, 2018!

Body of water with green algae

February 2, 2018 has been designated as World Wetlands Day by the International/Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, with a focus on Urban Wetlands. What are urban wetlands, and why are they important?

Wetlands are land areas that are flooded with water, either permanently or seasonally, and include rivers, streams, floodplains, marshes, estuaries and bogs. Urban wetlands are these same bodies of water, but are found in or around cities and their suburbs.

Preserving urban wetlands is an important step to providing a sustainable future as our global population grows and becomes more urbanized. Currently, 50% of the world’s 4 billion people live in urban areas, with that number proposed to increase to 66% by 2050. The need to provide land for building and basic services should be balanced between the need to preserve and restore natural resources like wetlands in order to make cities more livable.

Historically, wetlands were viewed as land that should be filled in to create usable land. As upland or dry areas have been mostly built-out in our larger cities, wetlands are under more pressure to be filled and converted into “usable” space. Why is this a problem?

Wetlands perform valuable services in our landscape in six major ways:

1) They are the source of almost all drinkable water consumed by urban populations. Wetlands filter water before it enters groundwater aquifers, helping to replenish this important water source.

2) They support the plant life that acts to filter waste, absorb harmful toxins (including agricultural pesticides and industrial waste), treat sewage and improve water quality.

3) They improve air quality by increasing humidity and providing oxygen (from plants) into the local atmosphere, the combination of which results in natural cooling.

4) They act as sponges to absorb flood waters and then release water slowly to reduce flooding and storm surges.

5) Wetlands are often an important part of parks and conservation areas that offer space for recreation (kayaking, fishing, walking or jogging, etc.) and access to a diversity of plant and animal life, which has been shown to increase happiness and satisfaction in residents. Studies have confirmed that interacting with nature reduces stress and improves the overall quality of life.

6) They offer a way for citizens to make a living by providing opportunities for fishing and agriculture or collecting plants for weaving, medicine, and food products. Wetlands can also provide tourist attractions, such as recreational fishing, diving, and sight-seeing that enable local citizens to make a living from secondary service opportunities such as restaurants and hotels.

Man cutting tree branch to volunteer

Sean James, PE, Vice President, cuts branches along a walking trail as part of a recent community volunteer event.

Wetlands are important to our ecosystem. Here are some ways you can protect wetlands: get involved in local planning efforts and speak out in support of preserving new parks and conservation areas; volunteer to restore or clean-up existing parks, streams and wetlands that have been neglected or run-down; organize a volunteer day or event in your community to pick up trash, plant trees or flowers along your local river or stream bank; stay informed on proposed land-use changes in your community; support legislation that protects or preserves wetlands; reduce water consumption to reduce the demand on groundwater aquifers; reduce or avoid pesticide use, which can run-off into streams and wetlands and be toxic to fish, plants and wildlife; reuse or recycle natural materials; and reduce your waste where you can.

Integrating wetland preservation and restoration into urban policy and planning efforts is key to improving urban life now and in the future.

26 in 2017: Environmental Permitting Experience Recap

Hoyle, Tanner Staff Inspecting River Bed for Permitting

Environmental permits give clear instructions on how the environment must be protected to maintain a precise balance between development and environmental protection. Environmental permitting is the process by which impacts to the natural environment are regulated and monitored to ensure minimal damage or disruption to environmental and human health. Because of permitting, activities that may cause pollution are prohibited by environmental protection agencies as well as local authorities.

With rigorous regulations established around environmental protection, a proactive approach for obtaining permits is required for projects to minimize impacts while maintaining the project’s schedule. As we look back at the permitting efforts completed in 2017, we are proud of the accomplishments our team has made to assist in leading these projects to successful completion. Our team members permitted 26 new projects in addition to the activities continued from prior years, here is what some of them entailed:

State Permitting Efforts:
20 NHDES Wetland Permits
10 NHDES Shoreland Permits
1 CT DEEP Wetland Permit
2 Maine DEP Natural Resource Protection Act (NRPA) Permits
3 Maine DEP Site Location of Development Act (SLDA) Revisions /Amendments
1 NHDES Alteration of Terrain (AoT) Permit
1 VT ANR Wetland Permit

Federal Permitting Efforts:
4 FAA NEPA Categorical Exclusions
1 FAA NEPA Environmental Assessment (Florida)
7 FHWA NEPA Categorical Exclusions

Extensive coordination with federal, state and local regulatory agencies strengthens our relationships to facilitate successful consultation throughout the permitting and planning process. With 2017 wrapped up, 2018’s permitting efforts have started off just as strong.

What’s the Buzz on Bumble Bees?

Photo Credit: USGS Bee Inventory and Monitoring Lab from Beltsville, Maryland, USA

After a minor delay by President Trump’s Administration, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) listed the Rusty Patched Bumblebee (Bombus affinis) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)- effective March 18, 2017. Species that are listed under the ESA are afforded protection bat-quote2for not only individuals but also their habitat, which, for those who are involved in any type of development, engineering, architecture or construction projects, can result in conflicts.

In addition to reviewing a project for potential affects to species protected under the ESA, coordination is also required to identify potential impacts to state-listed species protected under the regulations in each of the New England states. For example, in New Hampshire, Hoyle, Tanner has designed and provided construction oversight to avoid impacting the following species: the federally-threatened small whorled pogonia (Isotria medeoloides), a terrestrial orchid which prefers acidic soil often found along streambanks and slopes; the federally-endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) that lives in the beds of relatively slow, clean rivers and streams; and the state-endangered Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) and Eastern hognose snake (Heterodon platyhinos), which use wetlands and rivers for breeding and feeding.

But really, a bumble bee? First off, this is not the first invertebrate species to be listed for protection- maybe they are less cuddly or sweet to look at than a bald eagle, but the American Burying Beetle (Nicrophorus americanus) and Karner Blue Butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) have a role in their own environments that are important enough to prevent their loss. Second, it is not the first bee to be listed, as 7 bee species were placed on the ESA in September 2016, however they are only found in Hawaii. The Rusty Patched Bumble Bee is currently protected not just because the number of individuals has declined by as much as 87% since the 1990s and it is important to protect environmental diversity along all taxonomic groups, but also because their decline affects the wide-scale pollination process and ultimately could have an impact on our economy and food-supplies. This species relies on tall grass prairies and grasslands along the upper Midwest and Northeast, including Maine and Massachusetts, areas which have been lost, degraded or fragmented as development has converted the land. This colonial insect requires access to a continuous supply of flowering plants from early spring through fall. The increase in monoculture farming that has resulted in a lack of plant diversity means that the bumble bees only find flowers during portions of their life cycle, or have to travel long, exhaustive distances to find food.

The USFWS recognizes that the Rusty Patched Bumble Bee only remains on lands where management or land use has allowed them to survive, and in these areas conservation goals will be targeted. Project proponents will need to consult with USFWS staff for project review, as they currently do for all projects, to ensure this bumble bee will not be affected by the proposed actions.

More information can be found on the USFWS website: https://www.fws.gov/midwest/endangered/insects/rpbb/index.html

Important Note: An identified project that has the potential to impact a listed species habitat is far from a road block! Proper and timely coordination with the appropriate state and federal regulatory officials can result in resolving conflicts for the project to proceed, in most cases. Often there may be a time-of-year (TOY) restriction placed on the work schedule to avoid nesting or breeding seasons, or certain design changes can be implemented, such as the use of non-plastic erosion control matting or netting to protect reptiles and amphibians. In certain cases, a survey can be conducted of the project area by an experienced biologist to determine if the species is present or using the area; this can be helpful where habitats have been identified based on older soil mapping or vegetation surveys data, or the species reports are historic and the species has not been seen in the area in recent years. If the species is not identified during a site-specific survey, not only is this helpful in allowing the project to move forward without restrictions, but it also provides the agencies with valuable data on the locations of protected plants and wildlife.

 

Presidential Power Sways Environmental Perception

j0401332-Edited

Who would you say was one of the most significant environmental Presidents? Would it surprise you if I told you I think it is Richard Nixon? Yes, the only US President to resign from office, and who commonly made such un-eco-friendly statements as comparing environmentalists to a bunch of animals, was also the President who signed into creation the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969. This was one of the first laws that established the legislative framework for protecting the environment, outlined national environmental policies and goals, and developed the Presidential Council on Environment (now known as the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)) within the executive office. NEPA requires federal agencies to integrate our national environmental values into their decision making processes by considering the environmental, human and social impacts of their proposed actions as well as the reasonable alternatives to those actions.

In 1970, President Nixon also created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Before the agency was created, our nation had no central authority overseeing the protection of the environment. Shortly afterwards, he signed into effect the Clean Air Act Extension. This is one of the most significant air pollution control bills in American history. It required the newly formed EPA to create and enforce regulations to protect people from airborne pollution known to be hazardous to human health, specifically targeting sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone and lead.

President Nixon also signed into effect the Endangered Species Act (1973) creating the concept of preserving species and their habitats listed as threatened and endangered; this act has been called “the Magna Carta of the environmental movement.”

Finally, in the midst of his impeachment concerns, Nixon also proposed and lobbied through Congress the Safe Drinking Water Act that was ultimately signed by President Gerald Ford in 1974. This act initiated national efforts to protect the nation’s lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands and other bodies of water. It is fundamental in protecting aquatic resources including public drinking water supplies.

It comes as no surprise that during such an important environmental awareness period the first Earth Day was celebrated on April 22, 1970. Earth Day founder Gaylord Nelson, then a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, proposed the idea of a “national teach-in on the environment” to the national media and ultimately gathered a national staff of 85 to promote events across the country. On that first Earth Day over 20 million Americans took to the streets, parks, and auditoriums to demonstrate for a healthy, sustainable environment in many wonderfully creative ways.

In the 45 years since the origin of NEPA and these other ground-breaking legislations, environmental protection and regulation has become extensive and complex. In my role as Environmental Coordinator, I work hard to ensure our clients and projects comply with the applicable laws and regulations that govern our projects. I work to guide projects from preliminary design through construction and operation while successfully acquiring the relevant federal and state environmental permits, including NEPA compliance for impacts to streams, rivers, floodplains, wetlands, and state- and federally-listed species, among others.

Earth Day 2015 will celebrate the 45th anniversary of the event that raised environmental issues awareness to unprecedented heights and brought the concept of working towards a cleaner and safer nation from a wild “hippie” idea to mainstream citizens. For more information on how you can participate in Earth Day celebrations and events visit Earth Day Network.